INDIA AND THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD 1 PDF

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Page 1. Social Science. India and the Contemporary World - I. Textbook in . In earlier classes (VI – VIII) you have read about the history of India. In the next. Social Science: India and the Contemporary World (Part - I) - Class 9th. Table of Contents Printed Study Material for UPSC Pre General Studies (Paper-1). India and contemporary world 1 NCERT solutions are available for class 9 students as free PDF download on mashuementhampkeg.ml Complete solutions are provided.


India And The Contemporary World 1 Pdf

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Indian History is equally important for the IAS Prelims and IAS Mains Exam. There is a dedicated paper in the IAS Main Exam for the Indian. Ch: The French revolution, Socialism in Europe and the Russian revolution, Nazism and the rise of Hitler, Livelihoods; Economies and Societies, Pastoralists in. Download Latest () Edition, NCERT Books for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9, India and the Contemporary World – I, PDF Download.

Reach Us. Climate class 9 Notes Geography. In this pattern, the tributaries come from all directions to meet the main river. These solutions are tailored to match the understanding level of the students and act as a preparation guide for them.

With a huge base of practice questions, revision and study notes, Class 9 students can also make use of preparation packs for Olympiad and PSA. Circles Page No. Learning from these Solutions of Class 5 will clear your basic concepts and make it stronger. TopperLearning study resources infuse profound knowledge, and our Textbook Solutions compiled by our subject experts are no different. Search Results of Hindi ncert summary class 8 geography by Arpita prakash. Heron's Formula This study material contains comprehensive lecture notes for your preparation of Geography subject for class 12 board exams.

The revision notes covers all important formulas and concepts given in the chapter. Detailed explanation of the lesson along with meanings of the difficult words Also, the explanation is followed by a Summary of the lesson. Use Online Test Practice For Class 9 History tips, sample paper last year questions paper, Pdf file for doing study of history it is available on scholarslearning. Interior of the Earth 4. St , Sanskrit and Computer. Class 10 Social Science Geography Textbook — solutions all chapters.

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Ncert books in hindi is required by many students from hindi state board exams. Professional level answers are furnished for students to study with utmost ease. No more beating around the bush, making students to stay on the website searching the pdf download link. Events and Processes i. The French Revolution ii. Socialism in Europe and the Russia iii.

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Nazism and the Rise of Hitler. Section II: Forest society and Colonialism v. Pastoralists in the Modern World vi. Peasant and Farmers. Section III: Everyday Life, Culture and Politics vii. History and Sports: The Story of Cricket viii. In different ways all these events were important in the making of the modern world.

Chapter I is on the French Revolution. But we need to remind ourselves that these ideas also have a history. By looking at the French Revolution you will read a small part of that history. The French Revolution led to the end of monarchy in France. A society based on privileges gave way to a new system of governance. The Declarations of the Rights of Man during the revolution, announced the coming of a new time.

The idea that all individuals had rights and could claim equality became part of a new language of politics. These notions of equality and freedom emerged as the central ideas of a new age; but in different countries they were reinterpreted and rethought in many different ways.

The anti-colonial movements in India and China, Africa and. Revolution South-America, produced ideas that were innovative and original, but they spoke in a language that gained currency only from the late eighteenth century. In Chapter II, you will read about the coming of socialism in Europe, and the dramatic events that forced the ruling monarch, Tsar Nicholas II, to give up power. The Russian French. Revolution sought to change society in a different way. It raised the question of economic equality and the well-being of workers and peasants.

The chapter will tell you about the changes that were initiated by the new Soviet government, the problems The. But while Soviet Russia pushed ahead with industrialisation and mechanisation of agriculture, it denied the rights of citizens that were essential to the working of a democratic society.

The ideals of socialism,.

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Today the Soviet Union has broken up and socialism is in crisis but through the twentieth century it has been a powerful force in the shaping of the contemporary world.

Chapter III will take you to Germany. It will discuss the rise of Hitler and the politics of Nazism. You will read about the children and women in Nazi Germany, about schools and concentration camps.

You will see how Nazism denied various minorities a right to live, how it drew upon a long tradition of anti-Jewish feelings to persecute the Jews, and how it waged a relentless battle against democracy and socialism. It is about the working of an elaborate and frightening system which operated at different levels.

Some in India were impressed with the ideas of Hitler but most watched the rise of Nazism with horror. The history of the modern world is not simply a story of the unfolding of freedom and democracy. It has also been a story of violence and tyranny, death and destruction.

India and the Contemporary World. The king had commanded troops to move into the city. Rumours spread that he would soon order the army to open fire upon the citizens. They broke into a number of government buildings in search of arms.

Finally, a group of several hundred people marched towards the eastern part of the city and stormed the fortress-prison, the Bastille, where they hoped to find hoarded ammunition. In the armed fight that followed,. R e v o l u t i o n the commander of the Bastille was killed and the prisoners released — though there were only seven of them. Yet the Bastille was hated by all, because it stood for the despotic power of the king.

The fortress was demolished and its stone fragments were sold in the markets to all those who wished to keep a souvenir of its destruction. The days that followed saw more rioting both in Paris and the countryside. Most people were protesting against the high price of bread. Much later, when historians looked back upon this time, they saw it as the beginning of a chain of events that ultimately led to the execution of the king in France, though most people at the time did not anticipate this outcome.

How and why did this happen? Soon after the demolition of the Bastille, artists made prints commemorating the event.

He was 20 years old and married to the Austrian 1st estate princess Marie Antoinette. Upon his accession the new king found Clergy an empty treasury. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France. Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.

Under Louis 2nd estate. The war added more than a billion livres to a debt that had already risen to more than 2 3rd estate billion livres. Lenders who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans. So the French government was obliged Big businessmen, merchants, court to spend an increasing percentage of its budget on interest payments officials, lawyers etc. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining Peasants and an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the artisans state was forced to increase taxes.

Yet even this measure would not have sufficed. French society in the eighteenth century was divided Small peasants, landless labour, into three estates, and only members of the third estate paid taxes.

The society of estates was part of the feudal system that dated back to the middle ages. The term Old Regime is usually used to describe the Fig. Note that within the Third Estate some were rich and others poor.

Peasants made up about 90 per cent of the population. However, only a small number of them owned the land they cultivated. About 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate.

The members of the first two estates, that is, the clergy and the nobility, enjoyed certain privileges by India and the Contemporary World. The most important of these was exemption from paying taxes to the state. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges.

These included feudal dues, which they extracted from the peasants. Peasants were obliged New words to render services to the lord — to work in his house and fields — to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.

Livres — Unit of currency in France, discontinued in The Church too extracted its share of taxes called tithes from the peasants, Clergy — Group of persons invested with and finally, all members of the third estate had to pay taxes to the state. The fat lord sits there, ready to accept it all. He does not even care to grace him with a look. Activity Explain why the artist has portrayed the nobleman as the spider and the peasant as the fly.

Revolution 1. This led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains. Production of grains could not keep pace with the French. So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops New words whose owner fixed their wages. But wages did not keep pace with Subsistence crisis — An extreme situation where The. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened.

Things became worse whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest.

Bad The poorest can no harvest longer download bread. Disease epidemics. Activity Fill in the blank boxes in Fig. But they lacked the means and weaker bodies. This was left to those groups within the third estate who had become prosperous and had access to education and new ideas.

The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of social groups, India and the Contemporary World. In addition to merchants and manufacturers, the third estate included professions such as lawyers or administrative officials. All of these were educated and believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth.

These ideas envisaging a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all, were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau. In his Two Treatises of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right.

Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives. In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. This model of government was put into force in the USA, after the thirteen colonies declared their independence from Britain.

The American constitution and its guarantee of individual rights was an important example for political thinkers in France. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books and newspapers. These were frequently read aloud in groups for the benefit of those who could not read and write. The news that Louis XVI planned to impose further taxes to be able to meet the expenses of the state generated anger and protest against the system of privileges.

Accounts of lived experiences in the Old Regime 1. Georges Danton, who later became active in revolutionary politics, wrote to a friend in , looking back upon the time when he had just completed his studies: There I was in the company of important men … Once my studies ended, I was left with nothing. I started looking for a post.

It was impossible to find one at the law courts in Paris. The choice of a career in the army was not open to me as I was not a noble by birth, nor did I have a patron.

The church too could not offer me a refuge. I could not download an office as I did not possess a sous. My old friends turned their backs to me … the system had provided us with an education without however offering a field where our talents could be utilised. An Englishman, Arthur Young, travelled through France during the years from to and wrote detailed descriptions of his journeys.

He often commented on what he. Revolution saw. Activity What message is Young trying to convey here? Who is he criticising? What dangers does he sense in the situation of ? Louis XVI had to increase taxes for reasons you have learnt in the previous section. How do you think he could have gone about doing Some important dates this? In France of the Old Regime the monarch did not have the Louis XVI becomes king of France, faces power to impose taxes according to his will alone.

Rather he had to empty treasury and growing discontent call a meeting of the Estates General which would then pass his within society of the Old Regime. The Estates General was a political body to Convocation of Estates General, Third which the three estates sent their representatives. However, the Estate forms National Assembly, the monarch alone could decide when to call a meeting of this body.

The Bastille is stormed, peasant revolts in the countryside. A resplendent hall in all human beings. Versailles was prepared to host the delegates. The first and second France becomes a republic, the king is estates sent representatives each, who were seated in rows facing beheaded.

The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members. Peasants, artisans and women Napoleon becomes emperor of France, were denied entry to the assembly. However, their grievances and annexes large parts of Europe. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice.

But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote. This was one of the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like Rousseau in his book The Social Contract. When the king rejected India and the Contemporary World. Activity The representatives of the third estate viewed themselves as spokesmen Representatives of the Third Estate take the for the whole French nation.

On 20 June they assembled in the hall oath raising their arms in the direction of of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They declared Bailly, the President of the Assembly, themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they standing on a table in the centre.

Do you had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of think that during the actual event Bailly the monarch. Mirabeau would have stood with his back to the was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do away assembled deputies? What could have with a society of feudal privilege. Preparatory sketch for a large painting by Jacques-Louis David. The painting was intended to be hung in the National Assembly.

While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. A severe winter had meant a bad harvest; the price of bread rose, often bakers exploited the situation and hoarded supplies.

After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops. At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille. In the countryside rumours spread from village to village that the lords of the manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops. Caught in a frenzy of fear, peasants in.

Revolution several districts seized hoes and pitchforks and attacked chateaux. They looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues. A large number of nobles fled from their homes, many of them migrating to neighbouring countries. The map shows how bands of peasants spread Faced with the power of his revolting subjects, Louis XVI finally from one point to another. On the night of 4 August , the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.

Members Chateau pl. Tithes were residence belonging to a king or a nobleman abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated. Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch. These powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions — the legislature, executive and judiciary.

This made France a constitutional monarchy. The Constitution of vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly.

Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote.

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The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers. The figure on the right represents France. The figure on the left symbolises the law. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.

The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these are liberty, property, securi ty and resistance to oppression.

The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation; no group or individual may The Constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man exercise authority that does not come and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, from the people. It was the duty of the state to 5. The law has the right to forbid only actions that are injurious to society. Law is the expression of the general will.

All citizens have the right to participate in its formation, personally or through their representatives. All citizens are equal before it. Source B 7.

No man may be accused, arrested or detained, except in cases determined by the law. Revolution The revolutionary journalist Jean-Paul Marat commented in his newspaper For the maintenance of the public has been given to the rich … the lot of force and for the expenses of French.

Here indispensable; it must be assessed equally we have absolute proof of how wealth on all citizens in proportion to their means. Yet laws will last only as long as the people Since property is a sacred and inviolable agree to obey them. And when they have managed to cast off The. In that case a just Source: Reading political symbols The majority of men and women in the eighteenth century could not read or write. So images and symbols were frequently used instead of printed words to communicate important ideas.

The painting by Le Barbier Fig. Let us try to read these symbols. The broken chain: Chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free. The bundle of rods or fasces: One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle. Strength lies in unity. The eye within a triangle radiating light: The all- seeing eye stands for knowledge. The rays of the sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance. Symbol of royal power. Snake biting its tail to form a ring: Symbol of Eternity.

A ring has neither beginning nor end. Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free. The national colours of France. Activity 1. Identify the symbols in Box 1 which stand for liberty, equality and fraternity. Compare the political rights which the Constitution of gave to the citizens with Articles 1 and 6 of the Declaration Source C.

Are the two documents consistent? Do the two documents convey the same idea? Revolution The winged woman: Personification of the law. Which groups of French society would have gained from the Constitution of ?

Which groups would have had reason to. The Law Tablet: The law is the same for all, be dissatisfied? What developments does and all are equal before it. Marat Source B anticipate in the future? Imagine the impact of the events in France on neighbouring countries such as Prussia, Austria-Hungary or Spain, all of which were The. How would the kings, traders, peasants, nobles or members of the clergy here have reacted to the news of what was happening in France?

The situation in France continued to be tense during the following years. Rulers of other neighbouring countries too were worried by the developments in France and made plans to send troops to put down the events that had been taking place there since the summer of Before this could happen, the National Assembly voted in April to declare war against Prussia and Austria.

Thousands of volunteers thronged from the provinces to join the army. They saw this as a war of the people against kings and aristocracies all over Europe. It was sung for the first time by volunteers from Marseilles as they marched into Paris and so got its name. The Marseillaise is now the national anthem of France. The revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people. While the men were away fighting at the front, women were left to cope with the tasks of earning a living and looking after their families.

Large sections of the population were convinced that the revolution had to be carried further, as the Constitution of gave political rights only to the richer sections of society.

Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action. The most successful of these clubs was that of the Jacobins, which got its name from the former convent of St Jacob in Paris. Women too, who had been active throughout this period, formed their own clubs. Section 4 of this chapter will tell you more about their activities and demands.

The members of the Jacobin club belonged mainly to the less prosperous sections of society. They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily-wage workers. Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre. A large group among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers. This was to set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of society, especially nobles, who wore knee breeches.

Convent — Building belonging to a community devoted to a religious life Fig. This is one of the rare paintings by a woman artist.

The revolutionary events made it possible for women to train with established painters and to exhibit their works in the Salon, which was an exhibition held every two years. The painting is a female allegory of liberty — that is, the female form symbolises the idea of freedom. Activity Look carefully at the painting and identify the objects which are political symbols you saw in Box 1 broken chain, red cap, fasces, Charter of the Declaration of Rights.

The pyramid stands for equality, often represented by a triangle. Use the symbols to interpret the painting. Describe your impressions of the female figure of liberty. Sans- culottes men wore in addition the red cap that symbolised liberty.

Women however were not allowed to do so. Revolution In the summer of the Jacobins planned an insurrection of a large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food. Later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family. Elections were held. From now French. The newly elected assembly was called the Convention. On The. As you know, a republic is a form of government where the people elect the government including the head of the.

There is no hereditary monarchy. You can try and New words find out about some other countries that are republics and investigate when and how they became so. On 21 January he was executed publicly at the Place de la Concorde.

The queen Marie Antoinette met with the same fate shortly after. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. Two conflicting views: He was executed shortly after, during the Reign were guillotined. The guillotine is a device consisting of two of Terror. Liberty is Happiness, on wages and prices. Meat and bread were rationed.

Peasants Reason, Equality, Justice, it is the Declaration were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at of Rights … You would like to finish off all your enemies by guillotining them.

Has prices fixed by the government. The use of more expensive white anyone heard of something more senseless? Equality to the scaffold without making ten more enemies among his relations and friends? Churches were shut down and their Convention, which was buildings converted into barracks or offices. Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his Universel. Here is an supporters began to demand moderation. Finally, he was extract from it: Activity against tyranny ….

We must annihilate the enemies of the republic at home and abroad, or else we shall perish. In time of Revolution Compare the views of Desmoulins and Robespierre. How does a democratic government may rely on terror. How and inflexible; … and is used to meet the does Desmoulins perceive liberty? Refer once more to Source C. To curb the enemies of Liberty through terror is the What did the constitutional laws on the rights of individuals lay right of the founder of the Republic.

Discuss your views on the subject in class. Symbols from civilisations of ancient Greece and Rome were used to convey the aura of a hallowed history. The pavilion on the raised platform in the middle carried by classical columns was made of perishable material that could be dismantled. Describe the groups of people, their clothes, their roles and actions.

What impression of a revolutionary festival does this image convey? A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non-propertied sections of society. It provided.

Revolution for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins. However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. The political instability French. Through all these changes in the form of government, the ideals of The.

This print is one of the many pictorial representations of the events of 5 October , when women marched to Versailles and brought the king back with them to Paris. From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society.

They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to introduce measures to improve their lives. Most women of the third estate had to work for a living.

They worked as Activity seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the India and the Contemporary World. Describe the persons represented in market, or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of Fig. Most women did not have access to education or objects they are carrying. Look carefully to job training.

Only daughters of nobles or wealthier members of the see whether all of them come from the third estate could study at a convent, after which their families same social group.

What symbols has the arranged a marriage for them. Working women had also to care for artist included in the image? What do they their families, that is, cook, fetch water, queue up for bread and stand for?

Do the actions of the women look after the children. Their wages were lower than those of men. The Society of Revolutionary and of them? Discuss your views in the class. Republican Women was the most famous of them. One of their. Women were disappointed that the Constitution of reduced them to passive citizens. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office.

Only then, they felt, would their interests be represented in the new government. In the early years, the revolutionary government did introduce laws that helped improve the lives of women. Together with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls.

Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will. Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law. Divorce was made legal, and could be applied for by both women and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses. Many prominent women were arrested and a number of them executed.

The fight for the vote was carried out through an international suffrage movement during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The example of the political activities of French women during the revolutionary years was kept alive as an inspiring memory.

It was finally in that women in France won the right to vote. Revolution Olympe de Gouges was one of the most important of the politically active women in revolutionary France.

She protested against the Constitution and the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen as they excluded women from basic rights that each human being was French. So, in , she wrote a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen, which she addressed to the Queen and to the members of the National Assembly, demanding that they act upon it.

In , Olympe de Gouges criticised the Jacobin government The. She was tried by the National Convention, which charged her with treason. Soon after this she was executed. Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights.

The goal of all political associations is the preservation of the natural rights of woman and man: These rights are liberty, property, security, and above all resistance to oppression. The source of all sovereignty resides in the nation, which is nothing but the union of woman and man. The law should be the expression of the general will; all female and male citizens should have a say either personally or by their representatives in its formulation; it should be the same for all.

All female and male citizens are equally entitled to all honours and public employment according to their abilities and without any Activity other distinction than that of their talents.

Compare the manifesto drafted by Olympe de 5. No woman is an exception; she is accused, arrested, and detained in Gouges Source F with the Declaration of the cases determined by law.

Women, like men, obey this rigorous law. Rights of Man and Citizen Source C. Source G. Has she given us breasts to nurture babies? She said to Man: Be a man. Hunting, agriculture, political duties Fig. She said to Woman: Be a woman … the things of the household, the sweet duties of motherhood — those are your tasks.

Activity Shameless are those women, who wish to become men. Have not duties been fairly Imagine yourself to be one of the women in Fig. Formulate a distributed? One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin regime was the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. The colonies in the Caribbean — Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo — were important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee.

But the reluctance of Europeans to go and work in distant and unfamiliar lands meant a shortage of labour on the plantations. So this was met by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. The slave trade began in the seventeenth century. French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains.

Branded and shackled, the slaves were packed tightly into ships for the three-month long voyage across the Atlantic to the Caribbean.

There they were sold to plantation owners. The exploitation of slave labour made it possible to meet the growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee, and indigo. Port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes owed their economic prosperity to the flourishing slave trade. Throughout the eighteenth century there was little criticism of slavery in France.

The National Assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French subjects including those in the colonies. But it did not pass any laws, fearing opposition from businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade. It was finally the Convention which in legislated to free all slaves Fig. This print of describes the emancipation in the French overseas possessions.

This, however, turned out to be of slaves. The tricolour banner on top carries a short-term measure: The inscription below reads: Revolution giving them European clothes to wear. Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in Activity New words Record your impressions of this print Negroes — A term used for the indigenous people of Africa French. Describe the objects lying on the south of the Sahara. It is a derogatory term not in common use ground. What do they symbolise?

What any longer attitude does the picture express towards Emancipation — The act of freeing non-European slaves? Can politics change the clothes people wear, the language they speak or the books they read?

The years following in France saw many such changes in the lives of men, women and children. The revolutionary governments took it upon themselves to pass laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.

One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in the summer of was the abolition of censorship. In the Old Regime all written material and cultural activities — books, newspapers, plays — could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censors of the king. Now the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.

Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled rapidly into the countryside. They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France. Freedom of the press Activity also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. Each side sought to convince the others of its position through the medium Describe the picture in your own words.

Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers are the images that the artist has used to communicate the following ideas: This was one way they could grasp and identify with ideas equality, justice, takeover by the state of the such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about at assets of the church? This anonymous print of seeks to make the idea of justice tangible. This is a painting by Louis-Leopold Boilly. Recall what you have learnt about Marat in this chapter.

Describe the scene around him. Account for his great popularity. What kinds of reactions would a painting like this produce among viewers in the Salon? He set out to conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family.

Revolution Napoleon saw his role as a moderniser of Europe. He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system. Initially, many saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people. But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an French.

He was finally defeated at Waterloo in Many of his measures that carried the revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws to other parts of Europe had an impact on people long after Napoleon had left.

The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the Fig. Colonised peoples reworked the idea of freedom from Box 2 bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state. Tipu Raja Rammohan Roy was one of those who Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of individuals who was inspired by new ideas that were spreading through Europe at that time. The French responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France.

Revolution and later, the July Revolution excited his imagination. On his way to England at Cape Town he insisted on visiting frigates warships flying the revolutionary tri-colour flag though he had been temporarily lamed by an accident. Find out more about any one of the revolutionary figures you have read about in this chapter.

Write a short biography of this person. The French Revolution saw the rise of newspapers describing the events of each day and week. Collect information and pictures on any one event and. Activities write a newspaper article. You could also conduct an imaginary interview with important personages such as Mirabeau, Olympe de Gouges or Robespierre. Work in groups of two or three. Each group could then put up their articles on a board to produce a wallpaper on the French Revolution.

Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?

Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?

Chapter ll the Russian Revolution 1 The Age of Social Change In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.

The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided. Revolution and the Russian Revolution into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution, it seemed possible to change this.

In many parts of the world including Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who controlled social power began to be discussed.

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In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these ideas of societal change. Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who wanted to restructure society radically.

What did these terms really mean in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics and what linked them together?

We must remember that these terms do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times. Europe We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt inthe Russian at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful Socialism in Europe and.

Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in. Liberals also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.

They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. They did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every citizen to vote.

They felt men of property mainly should have the vote. They also did not want the vote for women. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not against the existence of private property but disliked concentration of property in the hands of a few. Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change.

By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process. Such differing ideas about societal change clashed during the social and political turmoil that followed the French Revolution. The various attempts at revolution and national transformation in the nineteenth century helped define both the limits and potential of these political tendencies. It was a time of profound social and economic changes.

It was a time when new cities came up and new industrialised regions developed, railways expanded and the Industrial Revolution occurred. Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories. Work hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was New words common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods. Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing Suffragette — A movement to give women rapidly.

Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues. Almost all industries were the property of individuals. Liberals and radicals themselves were often property owners and employers. Having made their wealth through trade or industrial ventures, they felt that such effort should be encouraged — that its benefits would.

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution be achieved if the workforce in the economy was healthy and citizens were educated.

Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint, they believed that societies would develop. Many working men and women who wanted changes in the world rallied around liberal and radical groups and parties in the early nineteenth century.

Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an end to the kind of governments established in Europe in In France, Italy, Germany and Russia, they became revolutionaries and worked to overthrow existing monarchs. After , Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist, conspired with others to achieve this in Italy. Nationalists elsewhere — including India — read his writings.

By the mid - nineteenth century in Europe, socialism was a well-known body of ideas that attracted widespread attention. Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.

Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the propertied were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if society as a whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests.

Socialists wanted this change and campaigned for it. How could a society without property operate? What would be the basis of socialist society? Socialists had different visions of the future. Some believed in the idea of cooperatives. Other socialists felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide scale only through individual initiative: In France, for instance, Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.

These cooperatives were to be associations of people who produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work done by members. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels added other ideas to this body of arguments. Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.

The conditions of workers could not improve as long as this profit was accumulated by private capitalists.

Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This would be a communist society. He was convinced that workers would Activity triumph in their conflict with capitalists.

A communist society was the natural List two differences between the capitalist. To coordinate their efforts, socialists formed an international body — namely, the Second International. Activity Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to Imagine that a meeting has been called in fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to your area to discuss the socialist idea of help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working doing away with private property and hours and the right to vote.

In Germany, these associations worked closely introducing collective ownership.Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation of society. The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms.

One of their. Marks : The weightage or the disrtibution of marks over the different dimensions of the question paper shall be as follows New factory cities came into being. To meet its regular expenses, such as the cost of maintaining Peasants and an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the artisans state was forced to increase taxes.

The days that followed saw more rioting both in Paris and the countryside. Describe the groups of people, their clothes, their roles and actions.

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