Pakistan: The Formative Phase –, International Affairs, Volume 45, Issue 4, Article PDF first page preview This content is only available as a PDF. Pakistan: The Formative Phase –, International Affairs, Volume 45, Issue 4, 1 October , Pages , This content is only available as a PDF. Taking as the starting point, Khalid bin Sayeed relates the diverse factors which periodically heightened or lowered tension between the Hindus and Muslims of the subcontinent. Khalid B. Sayeed ; with a foreword by George Cunningham. Even thirty years after it was first.
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Pakistan The Formative Phase - [Free] Pakistan The Formative History of India - Wikipedia (PDF) South Asian Partition Fiction in. Pakistan book. Read 6 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Not just a historical narrative, The Formative Phase evaluates the strength. ISBN (PDF) .. Khalid mashuementhampkeg.ml, Pakistan: The Formative Phase , (Oxford University Press, London, ), p
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Pakistan : the formative phase, 1857-1948
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Article activity alert. Subject alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Google Scholar. Citing articles via Google Scholar. Everyone wants a peace: Future Reserves , the British Army and the politics of military innovation during the Cameron era. China vs the WHO: Norm contestation in the digital era: Initially, the British settled in the areas, which later became India.
After the War of Independence, the government started democratization process steadily. The Company introduced the system of office management and judiciary based on European style.
The Company established the presidency of Madras in , the Presidency of Bombay in and the Presidency of Bengal were established in Saqib, , p. The constitutional development in North West India was too late as compared with the rest of India. These provinces were considered the least junior provinces of British India. The process of democratization was started very late as compared to the other parts of India. The most parts of Baluchistan was controlled by local elites like Khan of Kalat, Bugtis, Murees and a very considerable area was under the direct rule of British chief commissioner.
Shahi Jirga decided even the future of the province instead of the legislative assembly during the partition. The Colonial Constitution and Authoritarianism: Under the original Act of , the Governor General as representative of the British Crown was considered being the final authority in India and was given the widest discretionary powers.
He was given the power to choose and to dissolve the cabinet. The Act was designed to administer the British Indian Colony based on less democratic and more bureaucratic values. After the independence under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act of , the Indian Act of was adopted in the country with some amendments. Through the amendment in the Act of , the powers of Governor General were reduced Sayeed, , p.
In April , the G. In September , the Constituent Assembly reduced the powers of G. The G.
G lost its powers to dissolve the cabinet or Assembly at his discretion Khan, However, the G. G was not ready to lose the powers given to him by the Indian Act of In retaliation, he dissolved the Constituent Assembly on 24th October G of Pakistan under Indian Act of was highly undemocratic steps, which weakened the position of the legislature.
This practice made the parties dependable instead of being strong and thinking sovereign. The politics of laid down the foundation of undemocratic values in the politics of Pakistan. The dismissal of Nazimuddin and nomination of the next coming Prime Ministers were not upon the party decision or majority in the legislature but subject to the pleasure of the office of G.
Unfortunately, the colonial Act remained in Pakistan for a long time due to hurdles in the process of constitution making. Nomadic Lifestyle Beside the urban areas, the irrigated land of Sind and Punjab had developed a settled rural life in an early 19th century. But again nomadic and semi-nomadic lifestyle was common in the non-irrigated areas of Punjab, Sind, NWFP and Baluchistan and they were not interested in the process of democratization introduced by the British government Talbot, , p.
Bureaucratic Interference in Politics The word Bureaucrat originated from French, which means the desk or office. The word bureaucracy means people work at offices. The colonial masters introduced the ICS Indian Civil Service which not only controlled district administration but also they controlled provincial and central secretariat.
The civil servants were put to extensive training for this purpose at Fort William College that was established in Calcutta in Khan, The English persons were selected for the service through a competitive examination. The key posts in administration and judiciary were reserved for the officials of this cadre. They were entrusted with decisive role in districts and provincial administration and judiciary.
Pakistan inherited its administrative and political institutions from the colonial empire. It retained the class structure, the same elite characteristics and the same colonial pattern of administration. Bureaucracy influenced the politics of Pakistan just after the independence. Quid-e-Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan were heavy on bureaucracy and during that time bureaucracy remained within their jurisdiction.
He was in the audit and account department. After partition, he became the finance minister and then remained in the office of G. G of Pakistan from October to October At the time of independence, Chaudhary Muhammad Ali holding the title of secretary general headed the civil service of Pakistan.
Later on, his predecessor, Ghulam Muhammad, carried him into politics and appointed him as finance minister in After that, he was nominated as Prime Minister of Pakistan in In the period of Ghulam Muhammad and Sikander Mirza, the political intrigues and conspiracies reached its peak.
The status of the legislature was reduced from a supreme body to a servant organization of the G. G office. The role of political parties was minimized as the political parties had no role in the nomination of Prime Ministers in the House. It was Head of the State to nominate a person as Prime Minister and then asked the political parties to elect him in the House.
Ghulam Muhammad practiced it in the country after the assumption of G. G office and the practice continued in the regime of Sikander Mirza. Sikander Mirza the 4th G.
G was a senior bureaucrat having a military background. After completion of his education, he joined British Indian military service.
In , he entered in the Indian political service. In the post- independence period, he remained the secretary of defense ministry from 54 and then Governor General and President of Pakistan Aziz, , p. Their bureaucratic attitude led the political institutions towards authoritarianism. According to Hamid Khan constitutional and political history of Pakistan, , Ghulam Muhammad and Sikander Mirza were responsible for the political and constitutional decay in the formative phase.
The Martial Laws of was a result of their bureaucratic and undemocratic role Khan, , p. Ghulam Muhammad dissolved the constituent assembly for his lust for power and the second bureaucrat having military background Sikandar Mirza was a strong advocate of controlled democracy. He was an expert of palace intrigues, the formation of Republican Party overnight and gave it a majority in the House is an example of his political behavior.
In his regime, the civil service got greater influence in politics Mehmood, , p. These intrigues destroyed the democratic function of political institutions in the nascent stage. On the other hand, the politicians were incapable, selfish and empty of political consciousness. Delay in the constitution-making process, the political institutions lost the confidence of people.
Moreover, elections were not held in the country after the independence, which created distance in between the people and the political parties. In Pakistan, due to lack of political stability, national consensus and trained politicians, civil servants acquired a prestigious position in politics and decision- making. Nadeem Akhtar in his dissertation further quoted Hassan Asker Rizvi who opined that the weak and non-organized political parties failed to compete with the well- organized and well-trained civil bureaucracy supported by the military establishment.
The military bureaucracy nexus first penetrated into the political system and then destroyed their institutional structure Akhtar, The situation led the country toward military rule. In , Ayub Khan imposed Martial Law. The imposition of Martial Law was a joint venture of military and bureaucracy. Nadeem Akhtar in his dissertation Role of political parties in the democratic system of Pakistan mentioned that Ayub Khan regime was heavily depended upon bureaucracy for the political setup he introduced.
Keith Callard and Lawrence Ziring also made the political leadership and parties responsible for the imposition of Martial Law in Pakistan Akhtar, , p. Ayub was in the opinion that the politicians are not reliable and loyal to the country. Their role was terminated by banning both on political activities and on political parties. He was in dire need of strong and well-trained bureaucracy to run the state affairs. From the beginning, bureaucracy got a prestigious position in the military government at high level Afzal, , p.
Ayub Khan introduced Basic Democracies system, which was totally controlled by bureaucrats at Tehsil, District and Divisional level. The Democrats in BD system totally depended on bureaucracy. These basic democrats composed Electoral College for the Provincial, National and Presidential elections.
Ayub Khan used bureaucracy to control these basic democrats. The fact that the country became independent but regarding bureaucracy there was no change in their behavior, attitude and style of governance.
After the independence, they administered the country in the manner of colonial rule Shafqat, , p. In , Bhutto introduced reforms. The reforms based on welfare of the people, the civil servants should be efficient, professional and accountable to the people. Later on, Bhutto himself became the civil servant on his political base.
It was the first time when an elected party government completed its constitutional tenure. He did not organize his party on democratic lines as all the party offices were filled through nomination. The bearers of public and party officers were nominated to their offices on the recommendation of civil servants.
Bhutto used police, civil servants and civil intelligent agencies for his political desires.
Even the selections of candidates for contest of elections depended on the reports of intelligence agencies Khan, , p. Not all the military regimes have the public support so they depend heavily on bureaucracy. That is why the civil service becomes stronger and assumes the status of ruling class in the military regimes. Zia again gave a chance to the bureaucracy to reorganized itself to regain its former prestige.
However, the army remained the real source of government but he relied upon the civil servants as an instrument of governance. The party fewer elections of produced a new cadre of untrained and inefficient political leaders having no support of political parties.
These political figures easily fall under the influence of civil service. They depended on bureaucracy in making policies and political decisions. Ghulam Ishaq dissolved the two elected Assemblies. The elected government of Benazir Bhutto was dissolved in and the government of Nawaz Sharif was dissolved in Talbot, , p.
Military Interference in Politics Ayub Khan was well aware of the weaknesses of political parties and politicians. He remained partner with them as a defense minister in pre Martial Law period. He developed his own views that the democratic system under the parliamentary form of government in Pakistan is not workable.
He made responsible the politicians for the pre- ills and imposition of Martial Law. Ayub Khan banned all the political parties and sealed their offices throughout Pakistan.
Most of the political leaders went underground and some were arrested. He adopted policies to prevent the comeback of politicians. EBDO was applied to all those who remained members of public offices at any level from central legislature to municipal committees.
He opposed the involvement of political parties in the political system.
He designed the Basic Democracies System on non-party bases. Jinnah was neither an ardent Islamic reformist nor a revolutionary but a hardheaded politician. Therefore he urged leaders like Iqbal to be patient and cooperate with him. He wrote to Iqbal, "I want to pull them [Muslims] up step by step and before making them run I want to be sure they are capable of standing on their own legs. In order to build a broad-based Muslim League movement in Punjab, Jinnah wanted to keep his options open by including the Muslim Unionists within the Muslim League without insisting on their ceasing to be members of the Unionist Party.
Having gained only one seat in the Punjab provincial election, the willingness of the Muslim Unionist premier and his odd Muslim Unionists to become associated with the Muslim League could only help Jinnah's prestige even though his urban supporters like Iqbal were unhappy.
But why did the Unionists agree to join a party that would benefit from such an association without the Unionists getting any advantages?
K.B. Sayeed - Politics in Pak - The Nature & Direction of Change
The key to this puzzle lay in the simple fact that Jinnah had emerged, even after the provincial elections when he had gained no support in the North-West Frontier Province and Sind and won less than 40 percent of the Muslim seats in Bengal, as the most noteworthy all-India Muslim leader.However, his own created party did not follow the provisions.
A pact with such pro-British conservative elements was distasteful to the Muslim League leader and poet Iqbal, for in his view it would undermine the prestige of the Muslim League among the Muslim masses.
Subject alert. February Partyless national elections held. In addition to the basic theme of the Muslim nationalist movement, Khalid Sayeed has also focused on the working and development of the British vice-regal system, and argues that the vice-regal sy Not just a historical narrative, The Formative Phase evaluates the strength and weakness of the Muslim separatist movement that eventually culminated in the creation of Pakistan.
Most of the political leaders went underground and some were arrested. After completion of his education, he joined British Indian military service. To give majority to his own created party, the state machinery was used by Musharraf Talbot, , p. The Indian Councils Acts of and were the first step towards democratization of India in the Indians Councils Acts of and in which a semi-responsible government was introduced to a system of Diarchy.
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